The spread of avian influenza all over the world can not be explained by the external factors. According to the dialectic, the internal factor is the base and the external is the condition and the external factor can act only through the internal factor. What is the internal factor of avian influenza? Study shows that the internal factor of avian influenza is the consumption of a lot of selenium —the only element that has direct relation with viruses in the body of birds—in the peak period (autumn, winter and spring) of egg laying, which causes the body unbalanced and susceptible to virus attack.
Let us see the fact that the selenium composition in eggs is very high, with goose egg containing 336 mg/kg, duck egg 307mg/kg, all reaching the selenium rich standard (280mg/kg). The selenium composition of hen’s egg is 223 mg/kg, approaching selenium rich standard, and exceeding by far the composition of flour (47mg/kg), rise (70mg/kg) and beef (43mg/kg). It can be said that birds are providing high selenium nurture. However, the sources of selenium nurture of birds are not so good. Taking chicken as an example, a hen can lay eggs 15-18kg, and the egg/ forage ratio should be 2.6-2.8:1. If the selenium composition of egg can reach 233mg/kg, the selenium composition of forage should be 83mk/kg. (not including that consumed by chicken in their life and activity). But in some countries and regions deficient in selenium, it is difficult to reach the level (because the selenium in soil is provided to animals the plants, and if soil is lack of selenium, the food is of cause lack of selenium.). In the state of income falling short of expenditure, e.g. high production of egg and low intake of selenium, the organism of body will lose its balance, and besides, as selenium is an important element needed by immune system, the extreme lack of selenium will increase the possibility of being infected with avian influenza. This can be analyzed from macroscopic and microscopic view.
1.As seen from macroscopic view, the spread of avian influenza over the world is related to selenium deficiency
Fact: over 40 countries and regions are lack of selenium, including Europe, USA, Canada, Asia and Southeast Asia and among them, China is seriously deficient in selenium.
Having opened the selenium distribution map of China, you can see a large selenium deficiency band running from the Northeast to the Southwest composed of 45 parts of provinces and municipalities. In addition, part areas of Jiangsu, Anhui, Shandong, Ningxia, Gansu and Xinjiang are also short of selenium. There is only 1/3 of the territory of our country that can reach the normal critical value of 0.1mg/kg published internationally in terms of selenium composition and the rest 2/3 belongs to selenium deficiency area, among which, the area, serious lack of selenium, with selenium composition ≤0.02mg/kg accounts for 29% .
As bird’s forage is inexpensive, the materials of forage are usually taken from local resources, and the selenium in the food chain decides the selenium intake of local birds. Serious lack of selenium and high production of egg make hens losetheir internal balance and cause serious decline of resistance to them. The break-out and spread of avian influenza have happened just in these areas, and each time, it can be confirmed on the selenium distribution map of china. (See Fig. 1)
Ass seen from the history of avian influenza, the avian influenza was broken out in Italy, a selenium deficiency country in Europe, followed by Spain, Russia and Holland, which are also lack of selenium. The earliest, largest and most wide 5 times of avian influenza are all broken out in selenium deficiency areas, and the areas where avian influenza happens in 2005 are also short of selenium (See Fig 2).
The United States of America and Canada have also conducted survey on the selenium contents of their soil, and it can be seen from the North America selenium distribution map that the epidemic situation of avian influenza in 2005 is also corresponded to the areas of selenium deficiency ( see Fig.3). As reported, the Southeast Asia is also recognized as selenium deficiency area. However, its selenium distribution map can not be drawn here because detailed selenium composition survey is not available.
It happens that there was a similar case of large scale occurrence of disease caused to human being by lack of selenium. It was the keshan disease, an epidemic disease caused by the lack of selenium in the early days of the foundation of our country. Its was manifested as cough, oppressed feeling in chest, breathe hard, generalized hydrops, lung hydrops, heart failure and finally led to death. Researchers found Coxsackie’s viruses in the heart of the dead, and why such a kind of benign virus had become malign virus? Further research showed that it was because of selenium deficiency. Primer made a prompt decision to supplement selenium for 9,000,000 people in 310 area of over 10 provinces, and the disease was controlled. This was a miracle in the world. When avian influenza viruses attack once again, we should pay attention to the macroscopic relation between the disease and selenium deficiency.
2. The relation between selenium and avian influenza viruses as seen from microscopic view
As seen from microscopic view, avian influenza virus is bacilliform or spherical in shape. The spherical virus has a diameter of 80-120mm and cyst membranes and the hemagglutinin of the outer cyst membrane is labeled with “H”, and according to different antigen of protein, is marked with “H1-H5”, while its neuramidinase is labeled with “N”, or “NB1-N9” according to different protein antigen, among which, H5N1is a highly pathogenic virus. What is the relationship between virus and selenium? It can be described directly and indirectly.
2.1 Direct relation between selenium and virus
The delicate relation between selenium and virus is decided by the characteristics of selenium. Selenium is either a beneficial element essential to the reproduction of living beings or a harmful element with toxicity, and the threshold between the two is very narrow.
The highest composition of selenium is in the semen and ovum
of animals (because each semen contains selenium and each
time hundred million semen are discharged, in the period of peak sexual activity in the age between 20 to 40 for human being and the peak egg production for birds, the consumption of selenium is the highest, leading to serious shortage of selenium in the body). This is designed in breeding instruction of gene. As the main task of gene is to reproduce, the gene keeps most selenium in the spermaduct or Fallopian tube to be used for reproduction. Likewise, birds also store selenium in their eggs according to gene instruction to meet requirement for reproduction. This is why the composition of selenium in eggs is the highest.
The reproduction of viruses also needs selenium (and much more is needed because of large number of viruses). The selenium needed by a single virus is very little, and if enough selenium is available in the organism of animals, the virus that enters the body will die because of overdose (toxicosis) of nutrition (selenium), equal to poison itself. This is a typical form of “combat poison with poison”, and also a defense module of “with true Qi reserved, no disease will happen”. On the contrary, when selenium is lacking in the body, it is the best period for viruses to invade the body, because they can get adequate dosage of selenium. In addition, the mutation of viruses always happens in a selenium environment that is most suitable to the reproduction of viruses.
Experiment shows that enough micromolecule selenium compounds can restrain HIV outside of the organism and inorganic selenium compound can restrain cow leucovirus outside of the organism. Therefore, Chen Junshi, a nutritionist in our country has pointed out that “Selenium is the only nutritional element that has direct relation with viral infection”.
2.2 Indirect relation between selenium and viruses
Recently, there are a lot of reports about the indirect role of selenium on viruses, and the most outstanding is that supplement of selenium can increase the number and activity of NK cell (natural killing cell). NK cell, as the most primitive and most instinctive immune and killing cell, is another type of T cell, and has a strong immune and killing capacity to all microorganism (including all kinds of viruses) and variant cells. Experiment shows that the killing capacity of NK cell is 6-20 times that of other immune cells. People of biological circle are all thirst for the appearance of new products that can increase NK cells. The result achieved by us in application of selenium rich nano-tea is the increase of NK cell number by 20-100%, especially selenium rich nano-white tea. The method is also effective to increase the NK cells, manifesting that the activity of NK cells has close relation with selenium nutrition.
Other indirect roles of selenium on the virus are mainly to increase the immune capacity and strengthen the defense capacity of birds against viruses. Supplementing selenium to birds can significantly increase multinuclear leucocyte’s phagocytic per cent and index of bacteria, the number of leucocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophil cells in the blood and the formation rate of E-rose wreath. All these are the indirect role of selenium in increasing the immune function and anti-virus capacity of birds, and are of the same significance. For example, in Qidong county Jiangsu Province, a high outbreak area of hepatitis B and liver cancer, the incidence of the two diseases has significantly reduced through large-scale selenium supplement experiment.
3.Nano-tech is the key factor in conquering avian influenza
Now that it needs so much selenium in defense against viruses, why it is unable o propagate selenium supplementation?
This is also influenced by the characteristics of selenium. Because the safe application range of selenium is very narrow and its dosage is very small, it is very likely to use excessively if not stirred evenly. In order to solve this problem, our country has first invented nano-selenium, the most significant advantage of which is lower in toxicity and higher in safety compared with other selenium compounds. This is doubtless very important for the popularization of selenium sup0lement.
The acute toxicity of nano-selenium is decreased 7 times that of inorganic selenium and 3 times that of organic selenium. This is a large range of reduction because the gap between the normal selenium composition and selenium deficiency in animals usually doesn’t exceed one time. The error of fodder stirring usually doesn’t exceed 2 times, and so the 3-7 times reduction of toxicity of nano-selenium will bring about a safety guarantee for selenium supplementation.
After preparation, nano-selenium takes a hollow structure and has the effect of adsorbing and killing viruses and so called a trap for viruses. It is preferable to prepare the selenium into 30-130nm, which is equal to the size of viruses.
Now 3 methods are available for the industrialized preparation of nano-selenium:
Zero valence metal nano-selenium is prepared through reduction and modification of selenium, such as “Xiwang” produced by Shanghai Sitong Nano.
Another method is to reduce inorganic selenium added with vitamin-C to nano-selenium, which is very simple in operation.
The third is the organic selenium nano-products, which is prepared by crushing selenium rich plants into nano-powder and can be entirely absorbed. Now the conditions for industrialized production of selenium rich nano-tea products are available in Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province.
In Enshi of hubei Province, Ziyang of Shanxi province, Fenggang of Guizhou Province and east Chongqing, the selenium soil is the richest in China, and even in the world, The selenium in soil can be converted through plants into organic selenium, which can be used. The tea and other plants growing there contain a lot of selenium, especially in the winter. They can be cut off, crushed and added into fodder, both safe and effective, with a cost only several Jiao a kilogram. And thus, the problem of high cost in adding organic selenium into fodder can be solved.
The dosage of traditional selenium and nano-selenium added into fodder of birds (calculated as per actual composition of selenium) is 0.2mg/kg-0.4mg/kg in growing period, 0.5mg/kg in egg laying period and 0.8mg/kg in anti-infection period respectively. It can be seen that the selenium needed to increase immune function is much more than that required in growing and egg laying period for birds.
As for the method of addition, the selenium preparation should first be crushed and added into pre-mixed materials, and then after stirred, added in proportion into daily fodder. The fodder can be given only after stirred even.
4. Strategy of treating cause; in the scientific treatment of avian influenza
4.1 Human being have paid high price each time when extorting excessively, such as the destroy of selenium ecological environment by a lot of sulfur dioxide because of acid rain generated by industrial pollution; the outbreak of “Atypia” caused by greedily eating game; the excessively retorting from birds (plus over 10 methods inclusive of increasing illumination time to increase egg output by 3.4 times from 7.95 million tons in 1990 to 27 million tons in 2004 in our country), making birds lose their selenium environmental imbalance and finally leading to the outbreak of avian influenza. This situation has also endangered human being, and we have to employ a tremendous amount of manpower and material resources to catch and kill a lot of birds. Up to now, about 140 million birds have been killed, resulting in a direct loss of over 3000US dollars. If human avian influenza breaks out, the cost is estimated to be 800 billion.
China is a large selenium deficiency country, The selenium supplement in such a large scope can become a political behavior only based on a macroscopic study. For example, the present selenium distribution map was drawn in 1980. Now, 25 years have passed, and our country has witnessed high-speed development, with the selenium level in food chain having been greatly influenced by the serious industrial pollution and large amount of discharge of sulfur dioxide. This situation will make the selenium composition and utilization decline greatly. For example, the intake of selenium of English has declined a half in 20 years and now also becomes a selenium deficiency country.
Our country was originally short of selenium, and with tremendous social changes for 25 years, selenium has been greatly expended. Now we should ascertain our resources and prepare a new selenium distribution map of our country.
4.2 We should adhere to the principle of treating both the principal and secondary aspects of the disease.. On the one hand, we should treat the principal aspect by supplementing selenium to the people and birds urgently needing supplement, and on the other hand, we should dramatically change the selenium composition of soil by adopting selenium rich fertilizer, let plants absorb and convert much more organic selenium and increase the selenium contents in food for human and birds to a higher level and up to the standard of supplementing 200mg selenium daily each person as proposed by Who.
A survey over 13 province and cities shows that the average intake of selenium each adult on our country is 26-32mg/day, equivalent only to a half of 50mg/day proposed by WHO. It can be thought, therefore, the intake of birds in our country is also very low.
Of course, it will be futile to apply selenium fertilizer if the discharge of sulfur dioxide is not effectively controlled, because it will make the fertilizer unable to be absorbed by plants. Therefore, it is of great importance to control and reduce industrial pollution.
Finland has been successful in this aspect, This country was in serious short of selenium, and when it was found that its incidence and mortality of heart disease were significantly higher than high selenium countries and regions, the country promulgated a law to add selenium to the soil that produce crop, fodder and grass and has made the intake of selenium each Finn increased up to 90mg a day.
In the Chinese history, Primer Zhou led us create a miracle in the world in conquering kesha virus through supplementation of selenium. Now we have the capability to meet the threat from avian influenza. We should adhere to the principle of treating both the principal cause and secondary aspects of the disease and take legal action in selenium supplementation to increase our internal force and make avian influenza and other quick-variation viruses unable to prevail in our country, and finally create another miracle in the world.